Interactive effects of acolour wheel motion game on pupils’ cognitive development in graphic arts

Keywords: Colour, Creative Arts, Game, Gender, Graphic arts


Games can be instruments for fun and competition globally. However, despite their relevance for instruction, the awareness of key games and their use have not been significantly established. Therefore, the study investigates the interactive effects of colour wheel motion games on pupils' cognitive development in the field of graphic arts. The study included a pre-test and a post-test. The sample comprised 50 pupils: 25 boys and 25 girls. Two research hypotheses were tested. Findings revealed a significant difference between groups (experimental and control) and gender (boys and girls). Nevertheless, the use of the Colour Wheel Motion Game for learning was recommended for all pupils in secondary schools in Nigeria.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Micheal Olubunmi Odewumi, University of Ilorin, Faculty of Education

Ilorin, Nigeria.

Adekunle Olusola Otunla, Afe Babalola University

Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. E-mail:

Tayo Abass Bada, Obafemi Awolowo University

Ile-Ife, Osun State Nigeria. E-mail:


Adeleke, M. A. (2008). Strategic improvement of mathematical problem-solving performance of secondary school students using procedural and conceptual learning strategies. The African Symposium: An Online Journal of African Educational Research Network, 8(1), 143–149.

Aleson-Carbonell, M. & Guillén-Nieto, V. (2012). Serious games and learning effectiveness: The case of it's a deal. Computers & Education, 58(1), 435–448.

Achor, E. E., Imoko, B. I. (2010). Sex differentials in students’ achievement and interest in geometry using games and simulations technique. Necatibey Faculty of Education Electronic Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 4(1), 1–10.

Anderson, S. K., Muller, M. M. & Hillyard. S. A. (2009).Colour-selective attention need not be mediated by spatial attention. Journal of Vision, 9(6), 1–7.

Archibong, M. (2012, August 26). We used to lure students to study fine art. The Sun News. Retrieved from

Ash, K. (2010). Digital gaming goes academic. Education Week, 30, 2(5), 24–28.

Backlund, P. & Hendrix, M. (2013). Educational games - are they worth the effort? A literature survey of the effectiveness of serious games. 2013 5th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-GAMES).

Bassey, S. W., Joshua M. T. & Asim, A. E. (2008). Gender differences and mathematics achievement of rural senior secondary students in Cross River State, Nigeria. Proceedings of International Conference to Review Research in Science, Technology and Mathematics.

Barab, S. A. Arici, A. & Jackson. C. (2005). Eat your vegetables and do your homework: A design-based investigation of enjoyment and meaning in learning. Educational Technology, 45(1),15–20.

Bell, A. (2013). The Effect of Colour on the Audience Response in Theatre Scenic Design. Murdoch University.

Boyle. S. (2011). Teaching Toolkit: An Introduction to Games based learning. UCD Dublin, Ireland: UCD Teaching and Learning/ Resources. 2011. Retrieved from

Bunch, J. C., Robinson, J. S., Edwards, M. C. & Antonenko, P. D. (2014).How a serious digital game affected students’ animal science and mathematical competence in agricultural education. Journal of Agricultural Education, 55(3),57–71.

Clark, D. B., Tanner-Smith, E. E., & Killingsworth, S. S. (2015). Digital games, design, and learning: A systematic review and meta-analysis. 2015. Review of Educational Research. doi:10.31–02/0034654315582065

Celestine, A. (2013). Recommendations for Teaching of Higher School Chemistry. American Chemical Society Publishers.

Charsky, D. (2010). From edutainment to serious games: A change in the use of game characteristics. Games and Culture, 5(2), 177–198.

Chohan, S. (2011). Any letter for me? Relationships between an elementary school letter writing program and student attitudes, literacy achievement, and friendship culture. Early Childhood Education, 39(1), 39–50.

Copriady, J. (2014). Teachers competency in the teaching and learning of Chemistry practical. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(8), 312–318.

Dehkordi, M. R. (2017). The educational impact of traditional games: the role of Zurkhaneh sport in educating children. International Journal of Science Culture and Sport, 5(3), 134–139.

Deubel, P. (2013). Game on! [Electronic version]. T. H.E. Journal,1, (2006). Retrieved April 12, 2013.

Egenfeldt-Nielson, S. (2016). Third generation educational use of computer games. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 16(3), 263–281.

Fleer, M. (2010). Early Learning and Development: Cultural-historical concepts in play. Melbourne, Australia: Cambridge University Press, (2010), pp. 16–20.

Gambari, A. I. (2010). Effect of instructional models on the performance of junior secondary school students in geometry in Minna, Nigeria. Delsu Journal of Educational Research and Development, 9(1), 54–65.

Gee, J.(2009). Deep learning properties of good digital games: How far can they go? In Serious Games: Mechanisms and Effects (67–82). Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.

Groff, J., Howells, C., & Cranmer, S. (2010). The impact of console games in the classroom: Evidence from schools

in Scotland. Futurelab, United Kingdom. 2010, 21–30.

Herga, N. R., Čagran, B. & Dinevski, D. (2016). Virtual laboratory in the role of dynamic visualisation for better understanding of chemistry in primary school, Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 12(3), 593–608.

Heritage, M. (2010). Formative Assessment and next-generation assessment systems: Are we losing an opportunity? Council of Chief State School Officers, Washington, DC 2010, 30–36.

Ibitoye, A. O. J. &Olaifa, O. T. I. (2018). Predictive Analytic Game-based Model for Yoruba Language Learning Evaluation. International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science, 2018(2), 43-47. DOI: 10.5815/ijmecs.2018.02.05

Johannesson, M., & Lundqvist, H. (2012). Understanding Purpose and Circumstantial Context in the Use of

Educational Games: designing a search function and updating a Metadata model (Masters). University of Skövde. 2012.

Johnson, C. I. & Mayer, R. E. (2010). Adding the self-explanation principle to multimedia learning in a computer-based game-like environment. Computers in Human Behaviour, 2010(26), 1246–1252.

Johnson. P. (2014). Science, performance and transformation: performance for a ‘scientific’ age? International Journal of Performance Arts and Digital Media, 10(2), 130–142.

Kao, C., (2014). The Effects of Digital Game-based Learning Task in English as a Foreign Language Contexts: A Meta-analysis. Education Journal, 42(2), 113–141.

Ke, F. (2008). A qualitative meta-analysis of computer games as learning tools. In R. E. Ferdig (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Effective Electronic Gaming in Education (pp. 1–32). New York: IGI Global.

Kinzie, M. B., & Joseph, D. R. D. (2008). Gender differences in game activity preferences of middle school children: Implications for educational game design. Educational Technology Research and Development, 56(5-6), 643–663.

Klopfer, E., Osterweil, S., & Salen, K. (2009).Moving Learning Games Forward. Cambridge, MA: The Education Arcade. 2009.

Kurt, S. & Osueke, K. K. (2014). The effects of colour on the moods of college students. SAGE Open, January-March 2014: 1–12 DOI: 10.1177/2158244014525423

Kumar R. V. & Joshi, R. (2006).Colour, colour everywhere: In Marketing too. SCMSJournal of Indian Management, 2006. 40–46.

Li, Z., & Qiu, Z. (2018). How does family background affect children’s educational achievement? Evidence from Contemporary China. The Journal of Chinese Sociology, 5(13).

Maguth, B. M., List, J. S., & Wunderle, M. (2015) Teaching Social Studies with Video Games, Social Studies, 106(1), 32–36, DOI: 10.1080/00377996.2014.961996

Mayer, R.E. (2014). Computer Games for Learning: An evidence-based approach. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

McLaren, B. M., Adams, D. M., Mayer, R. E. &Forlizzi, J. (2017). A computer-based game that promotes mathematics learning more than a conventional approach. International Journal of Game-Based Learning (IJGBL), 7(1), 36–56.

Morrison, G. R., Ross, S. T., Kemp, J. E., & Kalman, H.,(2007). Designing Effective Instruction. John Wiley & Son Inc.

Mustamir, A. (2019). Application of Demonstration Methods to Improve Learning Achievement in Cultural Arts Subject and Skills of Filter Art Graphic Materials in Class IX-E Students of SMP Negeri 3 Surabaya. Indonesian Journal of Contemporary Education, 1(1), 15–17.

Odewumi, M.O., Adeniran, A. O., & Falade, A.A. (2018). Pre service fine-arts teachers’ disposition to use technology of painting-media for fine-arts instructions in South-West, Nigeria. Discovery, 54(268), 130–138.

Odewumi, B., Okeke, F., Abdulhammed, A., Uzoma, C. & Okeke, D. (2015). Cultural and Creative Arts for Basic Schools. Primary. Osogbo: Paulmac.

Odewumi, M. O. & Idowu L. (2014). Origami: Its impact on the Creative Arts Instruction of Junior Secondary School Ogbomoso. Nigeria. International Journal of African Culture and Ideas, (IJACI), 14(1&2), 258–272.

Odewumi, M. O. & Okonkwo, I. E. (2017). Effect of painting series package on the performances of junior secondary cultural and creative arts in Ogbomoso, Nigeria. African Journal Online (AJOL), 17(3), 324–333.

Olorundare, A. S. (2014). Constructivism and Learning in Science. 38th Inaugural Lecture Series, University of Ilorin, Nigeria.

Olurinola, O., & Omoniyi, T. (2015). Colour in learning: its effect on the retention rate of graduate students. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(14),1–5.

Omorogbe, E. & Celestine, J. E. (2013). The challenge of effective science teaching in Nigerian secondary schools.Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 2(1), 34–45.

Pintrich, P. R. (2003). A motivational science perspective on the role of student motivation in learning and teaching contexts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 667–686.

Pitchford, N. J., & Mullen, K. T. (2005). The role of perception, language, and preference in the developmental acquisition of basic color terms. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 90, 275–302.

Richardson, R. T., Drexler, T. L.& Delparte, D. M. (2014). Color and Contrast in E-learning Design: Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 10(4), 654–670.

Schloss, K. B., Lessard I., Walmsley, C. S. & Foley, K. (2018). Colour inference in visual communication: the meaning of colours in recycling. Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications. Published online 2018 Feb 21. doi: 10.1186/s41235-018-0090-y

Schutt, S., &Linegar, D. (2013). We learn as we go: What five years playing with virtual worlds has taught us. International Journal of Virtual and Personal Learning Environments, 49(2), 124–136.

Simsek, O. (2016). Use of a game-based app as a learning tool for students with mathematics learning disabilities to increase fraction knowledge/skill (2016). Graduate Theses and Dissertations.

Skwarchuk, S., Sowinski, C., & LeFevre, J. (2014). Formal and informal home learning activities in relation to children’s early numeracy and literacy skills: The development of a home numeracy model. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 121(2014), 63–84.

Smilek, D., Dixon, M. J.,Cudahy, C., & Merikle, P. M. (2002). Synesthetic colour experiences influence memory. Psychological Science, 13(6), 548–552.

Usman, A. Odewumi, O., Obotuke, E., Apolola, E. & Ogunyinka, C. O. (2014). Cultural and Creative Arts Book One for Junior Secondary Schools. Ibadan: Spectrum Books Limited.

Wastiau, P., Kearney, C., & Van den Berghe, W. (2009). How are digital games used in schools? European School net. 2009. Retrieved from

Wendel, V., Hertin, F., Göbel, S. and Steinmetz, R. (2010). Collaborative Learning by means of Multiplayer Serious Games. In Xiangeng Luo, Marc Spaniol, Lizhe Wang. Qing Li, Wolfgang Neidl, Wu Zhang: Proceedings of International Conference on Web-Based Learning, 2010, vol, 6483, p. 289-298.

Westfall, R. S. (1962). The development of Newton’s theory of colour. Isis, 53(3), 339–400.

Zirawaga, V. S., Olusanya, A. I. &Maduku, T. (2017) Gaming in Education: Using Games as a Support Tool to Teach History. Journal of Education and Practice, 8(15), 54–64.

How to Cite
Olubunmi Odewumi M., Olusola Otunla A., & Abass Bada T. (2020). Interactive effects of acolour wheel motion game on pupils’ cognitive development in graphic arts. Journal of Elementary Education, 13(2), 153-168.
Scientific Articles