Investigating the Source of Student Self-Efficacy and its Relations to Affective Factors in Mathematics Learning

  • Sulthon Amien Universitas Muhammadiyah Surabaya
  • Ratno Abidin Universitas Muhammadiyah Surabaya
  • Achmad Hidayatullah Universitas Muhammadiyah Surabaya
  • Ridlwan Muhammad Universitas Muhammadiyah Surabaya
Keywords: self-efficacy, attitude, student motivation, teacher support


The purpose of this study was to explore the source of students’ self-efficacy and its relation to motivation, attitude, and students’ perception of teacher support in mathematics learning. Three hundred and fifty participants were selected using a stratified random sampling method. The study was survey-based and quantitative; data were analysed through statistical tests. Findings showed that most students reported having good grades in math. The source of self-efficacy in mathematics significantly correlates with attitude, intrinsic motivation, and students’ perception of teacher support.


Download data is not yet available.


Aiken, L. R. (1970). Attitudes toward mathematics. Review of Educational Research, 40(4), 551–596.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-Efficacy: The exercise of control. New York : W. H. Freeman and Company.

Bandura, A. (2001). Social Cognitive Theory: An Agentic Perspective. Annu. Rev. Psychol., 52, 1–26.

Chong, W. H., Liem, G. A. D., Huan, V. S., Kit, P. L., & Ang, R. P. (2018). Student perceptions of self-efficacy and teacher support for learning in fostering youth competencies: Roles of affective and cognitive engagement. Journal of Adolescence, 68(July), 1–11.

De Corte, E. (2015). Mathematics-related beliefs of Ecuadorian students of grades 8-10. Mathematics Educator, 72(2), 1–13.

Di Martino, P., & Zan, R. (2011). Attitude towards mathematics: A bridge between beliefs and emotions. ZDM - International Journal on Mathematics Education, 43(4), 471–482. https://doi.o-rg/10.1007/s11858-011-0309-6

Ellez, M. (2020). Self-efficacy beliefs of students of primary school teaching department regarding mathematics and teaching mathematics. African Educational Research Journal, 8(4), 747–753.

Gao, J. (2020). Sources of Mathematics Self-Efficacy in Chinese Students: a Mixed-Method Study with Q-Sorting Procedure. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 18(4), 713–732.

Garofalo, J. (1989). Beliefs and Their Influence on Mathematical Performance. The Mathematics Teacher, 82(7), 502–505.

Grootenboer, P., & Marshman, M. (2016). Students’ Beliefs and Attitudes About Mathematics and Learning Mathematics Abstract. In Mathematics, Affect and Learning : Middle School Students’ Beliefs and Attitudes About Mathematics Education (pp. 55–74). Springer : Singapore.

Hair, Joseph F. , Black, Jr, William C. Babin, Barry J. & Anderson, R. E. (2009). Pearson - Multivariate Data Analysis, 7/E - Joseph F. Hair, Jr, William C. Black, Barry J. Babin & Rolph E. Anderson. In Pearson New International Edition. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.

Hatlevik, O. E., Throndsen, I., Loi, M., & Gudmundsdottir, G. B. (2018). Students’ ICT self-efficacy and computer and information literacy: Determinants and relationships. Computers and Education, 118(December 2017), 107–119.

Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1–55.

Jiang, Y., Song, J., Lee, M., & Bong, M. (2014). Self-efficacy and achievement goals as motivational links between perceived contexts and achievement. Educational Psychology, 34(1), 92–117.

Karimi, S., Ahmadi Malek, F., & Yaghoubi Farani, A. (2022). The relationship between proactive personality and employees’ creativity: the mediating role of intrinsic motivation and creative self-efficacy. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istrazivanja, 35(1), 4500–4519.

Klassen, R. M. (2004). A cross-cultural investigation of the efficacy beliefs of South Asian immigrant and Anglo Canadian nonimmigrant early adolescents. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(4), 731–742.

Kundu, A., & Ghose, A. (2016). The Relationship Between Attitude And Self Efficacy In Mathematics Among Higher Secondary Students. 21(4), 25–31.

Li, L. K. Y. (2012). A Study of the Attitude, Self-efficacy, Effort and Academic Achievement of CityU Students towards Research Methods and Statistics. Discovery-SS Student E-Journal, 1(54), 154–183.

Nja, C. O., Orim, R. E., Neji, H. A., Ukwetang, J. O., Uwe, U. E., & Ideba, M. A. (2022). Students’ attitude and academic achievement in a flipped classroom. Heliyon, 8(1), e08792.

OECD. (2018). PISA 2018 results: Brazil: Vol. I.

Op’t Eynde, P., and De Corte, E. (2003). Students’ Mathematics-Related Belief Systems: Design and Analysis of a Questionnaire. Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, 1–14.

Pajares, F. (2003). Self-efficacy beliefs, motivation, and achievement in writing: A review of the literature. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 19(2), 139–158.

Pajares, F., and Graham, L. (1999). Self-Efficacy, Motivation Constructs, and Mathematics Performance of Entering Middle School Students. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 24(2), 124–139.

Pajares, M. F. (1992). Teachers’ Beliefs and Educational Research : Cleaning up a Messy Construct. Review of Educational Research, 62(3), 307–332.

Patahuddin, S. M., Rokhmah, S., and Lowrie, T. (2020). Indonesian Mathematics Teachers’ and Educators’ Perspectives on Social Media Platforms: The Case of Educational Facebook Groups. Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 29(6), 519–528.

Raufelder, D., Nitsche, L., Breitmeyer, S., Keßler, S., Herrmann, E., and Regner, N. (2016). Students’ perception of “good” and “bad” teachers-Results of a qualitative thematic analysis with German adolescents. International Journal of Educational Research, 75, 31–44.

Rohatgi, A., Scherer, R., and Hatlevik, O. E. (2016). The role of ICT self-efficacy for students’ ICT use and their achievement in a computer and information literacy test. Computers and Education, 102, 103–116.

Ryan, R. M., and Deci, E. L. (2020). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation from a self-determination theory perspective: Definitions, theory, practices, and future directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 61(April).

Schukajlow, S., Rakoczy, K., and Pekrun, R. (2017). Emotions and motivation in mathematics education: theoretical considerations and empirical contributions. ZDM - Mathematics Education, 49(3), 307–322.

Simamora, R. E., Saragih, S., and Hasratuddin, H. (2019). Improving Students’ Mathematical Problem Solving Ability and Self-Efficacy through Guided Discovery Learning in Local Culture Context. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 14(1), 61–72. https://doi.o-rg/10.12973/iejme/3966

Skaalvik, E. M., Federici, R. A., and Klassen, R. M. (2015). Mathematics achievement and self-efficacy: Relations with motivation for mathematics. International Journal of Educational Research, 72, 129–136.

Suryadi, B., and Santoso, T. I. (2017). Self-Efficacy, Adversity Quotient, and Students’ Achievement in Mathematics. International Education Studies, 10(10), 12.

Tanaka, M. (2015). Exploring motivational changes for short in-class extensive reading. Journal of Asia TEFL, 12(4), 61–91.

Usher, E. L., and Pajares, F. (2009). Sources of self-efficacy in mathematics: A validation study. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34(1), 89–101.

Wang, Y. S., Sun, J., and Liu, L. (2017). Effects of applying virtual reality to adventure athletic education on students’ self-efficacy and team cohesiveness. Journal of Interdisciplinary Mathematics, 20(3), 895–908.

Yarin, A. J., Encalada, I. A., Elias, J. W., Surichaqui, A. A., Sulca, R. E., and Pozo, F. (2022). Relationship between Motivation and Academic Performance in Peruvian Undergraduate Students in the Subject Mathematics. Education Research International, 2022, 1–11.

Yıldırım, M., and Güler, A. (2020). COVID-19 severity, self-efficacy, knowledge, preventive behaviors, and mental health in Turkey. Death Studies, 46(4), 1–8.

How to Cite
Amien S., Abidin R., Hidayatullah A., & Muhammad R. (2023). Investigating the Source of Student Self-Efficacy and its Relations to Affective Factors in Mathematics Learning . Journal of Elementary Education, 16(4), 375-391.