The Importance of Autonomy of European Union Member States with regard to the Use of Genetically Modified Organisms on the Right to Healthcare – An Analysis of Judgements of the Court of Justice of the European Union
The European Union Member States (hereinafter: EU MS) have the possibility of restricting or banning the cultivation of GMOs under the Directive 2015/412 but under certain conditions. EU MS must also pay attention to the provisions of the Treaty on the Functioning of the Euro-pean Union or Treaty Establishing the European Community (hereinafter: TFEU), the provi-sions relating to the free movement of goods, which is one of the key objectives of the func-tioning of the European Union. This contribution is based on the data obtained from an analy-sis of Court of Justice of the European Union (hereinafter: CJEU) cases concerning the use of genetically modified organisms (hereinafter: GMO(s)). The analysis highlights the link between environmental risk assessment and the right to healthcare. The purpose of this paper is to make the individual aware of the possibilities they have regarding the use of GMOs.
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2019.01053/full [22. 1. 2022], DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2019.01053.
Arpaia, S., Birch, A. N. E., Kiss, J., van Loon, J. J. A., Messéan, A., Nuti, M., Perry, J. N., Sweet, J. B.and Tebbe, C. C. (2017) Assessing Environmental Impacts of Genetically Modified Plants on Non-target Organisms: The Relevance of In Planta Studies, Science of the Total Environment, 583, 123-132, DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.01.039.
Avbelj, M. (2011) Sodno pravo Evropske unije (Ljubljana: GV Založba).
Brandenberg, O., Dhlamini, Z., Edema, R., Fulgosi, H., Ghosh, K., Gutierrez-Rosati, A., Kiggundu, A., Machuka, J., Matengo, H. K., Mneney, E.E., Offei, S. K., O'Garro, L., Parida, A., Sensi, A. and Sonnino, A. (2011. Module A - Introduction to Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering, Biosafety Resource Book, Brandenberg, O., Dhlamini, Z., Sensi, A., Ghosh, K., Sonnino, A. (ed.) (Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations).
Commission Directive (EU) 2018/350 of 8 March 2018 amending Directive 2001/18/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified organisms, Official Journal L 67, 09/03/2018.
Corcione, E. (2018), Emergency Measures Against GMOs Between Harmonizing and De-harmonizing Trends: The Case Fidenato et al. European Papers, Vol. 3, No 1, European Forum, Insight.
De Ruijter A. (2019) EU Health Law & Policy: The Expansion of EU Power in Public Health and Health Care (Oxford: Oxford Studies in European Law).
Directive (EU) 2015/412 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March 2015 amending Directive 2001/18/EC as regards the possibility for the Member States EU MS to restrict or prohibit the cultivation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in their territory, Official Journal L 68, 13/03/2015.
Directive 2001/18/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 March 2001 on the deliberate release into the environment of genetically modified organisms and repealing Council Directive 90/220/EEC - Commission Declaration, Official Journal L 106, 17/04/2001 w/amendments.
Directive 2004/35/CE of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 April 2004 on environmental liability with regard to the prevention and remedying of environmental damage, Official Journal L 143, 30/04/2004.
Eriksson, D., Custers, R., Edvardsson Björnberg, K., Ove Hansson, S., Purnhagen, K., Qaim, M., Romeis, J., Schiemann, J., Schleissing, S., Tosun, J. and Visser, R. (2020) Options to Reform the European Union Legislation on GMOs: Risk Governance Trends in Biotechnology: Elsevier, 38(4).
European Commission (2000) Communication from the Commission on the precautionary principle, Brussels, 2. 2. 2000, COM (2000) 1 final [online], available at: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2000:0001:FIN:EN:PDF [12. 1. 2022].
European Commission (2015) Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions Review of the decision-making process on genetically modified organisms (GMOs), no. COM (2015) 176 final, Brussels, [9. 4. 2021].
European Commission (2016) Experience of Member States with Directive 2009/41/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 on the contained use of genetically modified micro-organisms (recast) for the period 2009-2014, Brussels [online], available at: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=CELEX:52016DC0808&from=EN [24. 1. 2022].
European Food Safety Authority (2010) Guidance on the Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Plants. EFSA Journal. 8.
European Food Safety Authority Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (2013) Scientific Opinion on application EFSA-GMO-NL-2011-93 for the placing on the market of the herbicide-tolerant genetically modified soybean MON 87708 for food and feed uses, import and processing under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 from Monsanto. EFSA Journal 13(7):4178 [online], available at: https://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/4178 [12. 1. 2022].
European Union (2020) Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) [online], available at: https://european-union.europa.eu/institutions-law-budget/institutions-and-bodies/institutions-and-bodies-profiles/court-justice-european-union-cjeu_en#sodi%C5%A1%C4%8De-evropske-unije-in-dr%C5%BEavljani%20[9.%204.%202021. [12. 1. 2022].
Ferčič, A., Hojnik, J., Tratnik, M. (2011) Uvod v pravo Evropske unije (Ljubljana: GV Založba).
Giraldo, P. A., Shinozuka, H., Spangenberg, G. C., Cogan, N. O. I., Smith, K. F. (2019) Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Feed: Is There Any Difference from Food? Front. Plant Sci. 10:1592. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.01592.
Greer, S. L., Fahy, N., Rozenblum, S., Jarman, H., Palm, H., Elliott, H. E., Wismar, M. (2019) European Observatory Everything you always wanted to know about European Union health policies but were afraid to ask [online], available at:
https://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/259955/Everything-you-always-wanted-to-know-about-European-Union-health-policies-but-were-afraid-to-ask.pdf [12. 1. 2022].
Heubuch, M. (2016) Report on the New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition,
2016, Committee on Development, available at:
https://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/A-8-2016-0169_EN.pdf [12. 1. 2022].
Hojnik, J. (2010) Prosti pretok blaga v EU (Ljubljana: GV Založba).
Klemenčič, T. (2010) Načelo previdnosti in primeri njegove uporabe v praksi, Varstvo narave, 23 (23).
Knez, R. (2008) Uporaba in učinkovanje direktiv s področja varstva okolja v upravnih in sodnih postopkih,, Varstvo narave, 21(21).
Lamping, M. (2012) Shackles for bees? The ECJ's judgment on GMO-contaminated
honey. Eur. J. Risk Regul. 3 (1).
Meško Kuralt K. (2021a) The Importance of Labeling Products with a GMO or Non-GMO Label, Medicine, Law and Society, 14(1), 43-76, available at:
https://doi.org/10.18690/mls.14.1.43-76.2021 [12. 1. 2022].
Meško Kuralt K. (2021b) Impact of (Non) Use of Genetically Modified Organisms on the Right to Healthcare - Comparative Legal Aspect. Doctoral dissertation, Faculty of Law Maribor, University of Maribor, available at: https://plus.si.cobiss.net/opac7/bib/79962627#full [12. 1. 2022].
Neuwirth, R. J., Svetlicinii, A. (2015). Law as a Social Medicine: Enhancing International Inter-Regime Regulatory Coopetition as a Means for the Establishment of a Global Health Governance Framework, Journal of Legal Medicine [online], 36 (3/4).
Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 September 2003 on genetically modified food and feed, Official Journal L 268, 18/10/2003.
Regulation (EC) No 1830/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 September 2003 concerning the traceability and labelling of genetically modified organisms and the traceability of food and feed products produced from genetically modified organisms and amending Directive 2001/18/EC, Official Journal L 268, 18/10/2003.
Restriction or Prohibition of the Cultivation of Genetically Modified Plants Act, Official Gazette of RS, No. 69/15.
Šturm, L., Arhar, F., Plauštajner, K., Rijavec, V., Toplak, L., Blaha, M., et al. (2010) Komentar Ustave Republike Slovenije - Dopolnitev – A (Kranj: Fakulteta za podiplomske in evropske študije); Splošno ustavno načelo sorazmernosti [online], available at:
https://e-kurs.si/komentar/splosno-ustavno-nacelo-sorazmernosti-2/ [12. 1. 2022].
The Restriction or Prohibition of the Cultivation of Genetically Modified Plants Act, Official Gazette of RS, No. 69/15.
Weatherill, S. (2011) The Limits of Legislative Harmonization Ten Years After Tobacco Advertising: How the Court's Case Law Has Become a Drafting Guide, German Law Journal, 12 (3).
Vos, E.and De Smedt, K. (2000) Report: Taking Stock as a Basis for the Effect of the Precautionary Principle Since 2000 (WP1), available at: https://recipes-project.eu/sites/default/files/2020-03/Report%20Taking%20stock%20as%20a%20basis%20for%20the%20effect%20of%20the%20precautionary%20principle%20since%202000.pdf [12. 1. 2022].