Vulnerable consumers, their health and urgent supply of electrical energy in Slovenian legal framework

Luka Martin Tomažič, Suzana Bračič, Borut Bratina

Abstract


The question of access to a cost-accessible source of electrical energy during the winter months is one of the pressing concerns of social security even in developed states. We will analyse the complex legal, health and economic issues that are connected with the notion of who a vulnerable consumer is as defined in the Slovenian Energy Code (EZ-1). We will do so by analysing the nature of electrical energy in the Slovenian legal framework and then by evaluating the legal solutions proposed for vulnerable consumers. Consequences for an individual’s health, with a focus during the winter months, will be assessed and a comparative overview of legal solutions will be performed. Lastly, we will argue that the current solution may well be economically untenable and that a revision might be in order.

Vprašanje dostopa do stroškovno dostopnega vira električne energije v zimskih mesecih je tudi v razvitih državah eden od nujnih vprašanj socialne varnosti. Analizirali bomo kompleksna pravna, zdravstvena in ekonomska vprašanja, povezana s pojmom, kdo je ranljivi potrošnik glede na opredelitev v slovenskem Energetskem zakonu (EZ-1). Tega se bomo lotili z analizo narave električne energije v slovenskem pravnem okviru in nato z oceno zakonskih rešitev, ki so predlagane za ranljive potrošnike. Ocenili bomo posledice za zdravje posameznika, s poudarkom na zimskih mesecih, in podali primerjalni pregled zakonskih rešitev. Sklepno bomo trdili, da bi bila sedanja rešitev lahko ekonomsko nevzdržna, zato bi bila priporočljiva sprememba zakonodaje.


Keywords


Energy poverty, vulnerable consumers, cold exposure, urgent supply, electricity, Slovenia

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bates, B. (1990) Information as an economic good: A reevaluation of theoretical approaches, In: Mediation, information and communication – Information and behaviour, Volume 3, (New Brunswick: Transaction), pp. 379-394.

Bradbrook, A. J. [et al] (2006) Placing access to energy services within a human rights framework, Human Rights Quarterly, 28(2), pp. 389-415, doi: 10.1353/hrq.2006.0015.

Hassi, J. [et al] (2005) Impacts of cold climate on human heat balance, performance and health in circumpolar areas, International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 64(5), pp. 459-467, doi: 10.3402/ijch.v64i5.18027.

Hong, Y. C. [et al] (2013) Identification of RAS genotypes that modulate blood pressure change by outdoor temperature, Hypertension Research, 36(6), pp. 540-545, doi: 10.1038/hr.2012.218.

Kalihoff, A. (2011) Why democracy needs public goods (Plymouth: Lexington Books).

Kotchen, M. (2014) Public goods, In: Whitehead, J. & Haab, T. (eds.) Environmental and Natural Resource Economics: An Encyclopedia (Greenwood: ABC-CLIO).

Marchant, B. [et al] (1993) Circadian and seasonal factors in the pathogenesis of acute myocardial infarction: the influence of environmental temperature, British Heart Journal, 69(5), pp. 385-387.

Modesti, P. A. [et al] (2006) Weather-Related Changes in 24-Hour Blood Pressure Profile Effects of Age and Implications for Hypertension Management, Hypertension, 47(2), pp.155-161.

Morabito, M. [et al] (2011) Innovative Approaches Helpful to Enhance Knowledge on Weather-Related Stroke Events Over a Wide Geographical Area and a Large Population, Stroke, 42(3), pp. 593-600, doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.602037.

Pye S. [et al] (2015) Energy poverty and vulnerable consumers in the energy sector across the EU: analysis of policies and measures (Stockholm: Insight_E).

Rademaekers, K. [et al] (2016) Selecting Indicators to Measure Energy Poverty (Rotterdam: Trinomics).

The Eurowinter Group (1997) Cold exposure and winter mortality from ischaemic heart disease , cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, and all causes in warm and cold regions of Europe, Lancet, 349(9062), pp.1341-1346.

Tomažič, L. M. & Bratina, B. (2015) Corporate governance and management in the electricity market between economic public service and free market, with emphasis on energy contracting, Masters thesis (Maribor: Ekonomsko-poslovna fakulteta).

Youn, J. [et al] (2007) Arterial stiffness is related to augmented seasonal variation of blood pressure in hypertensive patients, Blood Press,16(6), pp. 375-380.

Woodhouse, P. R. [et al] (1993) Seasonal variation of blood pressure and its relationship to ambient temperature in an elderly population, Journal of Hypertension, 11(11), pp. 1267-1274.

Zhang, Y. [et al] (2012) Cardiac-specific knockout of ET A receptor mitigates low ambient temperature-induced cardiac hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction, Journal of Molecular and Cellular Biology, 4(2), pp. 97-107, doi: 10.1093/jmcb/mjs002.

Zheng, D. [et al] (2016) Low Ambient Temperature and Intracerebral Hemorrhage: The INTERACT2 Study, PLoS One, 11(2):e0149040, pp. 1-14, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149040.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.