Selected legal problems of EEG biofeedback therapy under the Polish law

Aleksandra Nowak-Gruca


The use of EEG biofeedback for therapeutic or healing purposes has its justification in modern research and recently one can notice the increasing popularity of this method. Possible threats which may be associated with improper training and EEG biofeedback therapy may result from error in the diagnosis or incorrect selection of the training protocol. The effectiveness of therapy depends largely on the efforts of the patient himself, however, the range of waves will be amplified or suppressed by diagnosticians and therapists. If during an EEG biofeedback, the correct neuronal signal is amplified or suppressed, this can have adverse effects. In Poland, there are no legal regulations regarding the acquisition of qualifications for conducting neurotherapy. Likewise, there are no indications as to which institutions have the right to assign appropriate powers to use this type of apparatus. The lack of legal regulations means that now everyone can practice neurotherapy. The article presents selected legal problems related to conducting EEG biofeedback therapy under law, especially under Polish regulations, including the problem of the responsibility of the therapist or trainer.


EEG biofeedback, EEG applications, neurotheraphy, neurotherapist, legal liability, medical device, medical profession, patient’s consent to treatment

Full Text:



Achinivu, K., Staufenberg, E., Cull, C. (2012) Cognitive function during vagus nerve stimulation for treatment-refractory epilepsy: A pilot study using the critical flicker fusion test, Journal of Neurotherapy, 16(1), pp. 32-36, doi: 10.1080/10874208.2012.650097

Albert, A. O., Andrasik, F., Moore, J. L., & Dunn, B. R. (1998) Theta/beta training for attention, concentration and memory improvement in the geriatric population, Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 23(2), pp: 109. Abstract.

Alhambra, M. A., Fowler, T. P., & Alhambra, A. A. (1995) EEG biofeedback: A new treatment option for ADD/ADHD, Journal of Neurotherapy, 1(2), pp. 39–43, doi: 10.1300/J184v01n02_03

Barabasz, A., & Barabasz, M. (1996) Neurotherapy and alert hypnosis in the treatment of attention deficit disorder, In: Lynn, S. J., Kirsch, I. & Rhue, J. W. (eds.) Casebook of Clinical Hypnosis (Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association Press), pp. 271–292

Boynton, T. (2001) Applied research using alpha/theta training for enhancing creativity and well-being, Journal of Neurotherapy, 5(1–2), pp. 5–18, doi: 10.1300/J184v05n01_02.

Brunoni A. R., Nitsche M. A., Bolognini N., et al. (2012) Clinical research with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS): Challenges and future directions, Brain Stimulation, 5(3), pp. 175-195, doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2011.03.002.

Cheon, E. J., Koo, B. H. & Choi, J. H. (2016) The efficacy of neurofeedback in patients with major depressive disorder: an open labeled prospective study, Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 41(1), pp. 103-110, doi: 10.1007/s10484-015- 9315-8.

Coben, R., Mohammad-Rezazadeh, I. & Cannon, R. (2014) Using quantitative and analytic EEG methods in the understanding of connectivity in autism spectrum disorders: a theory of mixed over- and under-connectivity.Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, pp. 45, doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00045.

Cordelia, R., Anderson, J.S (2012) Evaluation of neurofeedback training in the treatment of parkinson’s disease: A pilot study, Journal of Neurotherapy, 16(1), pp. 4-11, doi: 10.1080/10874208.2012.650109.

Domaradzki J. (2013) O definicjach zdrowia i choroby, Folia Medica Lodziensia, 40(1), pp. 5-29.

Fehmi, L. G. & Selzer, F. A. (1980) Biofeedback and attention training, In S. Boorstein (Ed.), Transpersonal Psychotherapy (Palo Alto: Science and Behavior Books).

Fiutak, A. (2013) Prawo w medycynie (Warszawa: CH-Beck), pp. 23-50.

Fiutak, A. & Dąbrowski, J. (2012) Udzielanie pomocy terapeutycznej. Aspekty prawne, (Warszawa: Difin), pp. 17-54.

Hammond, D. (2005) Neurofeedback treatment of depression and anxiety, Journal of Adult Development, 12(2/3), pp. 131-137, doi: 10.1007/s10804-005-7029-5.

Hammond, D. C. (2007) Can LENS neurofeedback treat anosmia resulting from a head injury?, Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(1), pp. 57–62, doi: 10.1300/J184v11n01_06.

Kim, D. Y., Yoo, S. S., Tegethoff, M., Meinlschmidt, G. & Lee, J. H. (2015) The inclusion of functional connectivity information into fMRI-based neurofeedback improves its efficacy in the reduction of cigarette cravings, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 27(8), pp. 1552-1572, doi: 10.1162/jocn_a_00802.

Kolosa, A. (2000) Zdaniem Państwowej Inspekcji Pracy, Praca i Zabezpieczenie Społeczne, 7-8, pp: 54 - 56.

Krekora, K. & Czernicki, J. (2005) Biofeedback in rehabilitation of stroke patients, Rehabilitacja Medyczna, 9(3), pp. 26-30.

Nesterowicz, M. (2013) Prawo medyczne (Toruń: Dom OrganizatoraTNOiK)

Okupińska, A. & Krzywowiąza, A. (2013) Biofeedback jako efektywna metoda w terapii deficytów poznawczych w ujęciu teorii umysłu. Neurokognitywistyka w patologi I izdrowiu 2011-2013, Roczniki Pomorskiej Akademii Medycznej w Szczecinie, 3, pp. 195-202.

Orlando, P. C., & Rivera, R. O. (2004) Neurofeedback for elementary students with identified learning problems, Journal of Neurotherapy, 8(2), pp. 5–19, doi: 10.1300/J184v08n02_02.

Pakszys M. & Pakszysz W. (2018) EEG Biofeedback - metodaneuroterapiiinstrumentalnej, available at: (January 31, 2018).

Parens, E. (1998) Enhancing Human Traits: Ethical and Social Implications (Georgetown: Georgetown University Press).

President’s Council on Bioethics (2003) Beyond Therapy: Biotechnology and the Pursuit of Happiness (Washington, DC: President’s Council on Bioethics).

Raymond, J., Varney, C., Parkinson, L. A., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2005) The effects of alpha/theta neurofeedback on personality and mood, Cognitive Brain Research, 23(2- 3), pp. 287–292,

Sürmeli T, Ertem, A. (2011) Obsessive compulsive disorder and the efficacy of qEEG-guided neurofeedback treatment: a case series, Clinical EEG Neuroscience Journal, 42(3), pp. 195-201.

Rogel, A., Guez, J., Getter, N., Keha, E., Cohen, T., Amor, T. & Todder, D. (2015) Transient adverse side effects during neurofeedback training: a randomized, sham-controlled, double blind study, Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, (40) 3, pp. 209-218. doi: 10.1007/s10484-015-9289-6

Rowan, A. J. & Tolunsky, E. (2004) Podstawy EEG z mini atlasem (Wrocław: Urban & Partner)

Schütze, M., Junghanns, K. (2015) The difficulty of staying awake during alpha/theta neurofeedback training, Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 40(2), pp. 85-94. doi: 10.1007/s10484-015-9278-9.

Szewczyk, R. Ł., Siedlecki, M. Ł. & Ratomska, M. A. (2016) Prawne aspekty prowadzenia i korzystania z neuroterapii, Neuropsychiatria i Neuropsychologia, 11 (1), pp. 21– 27, doi: 10.5114/nan.2016.60392.

Walkowiak, H. (2015). EEG biofeedback: charakterystyka, zastosowanie, opinie specjalistów, Studia Edukacyjne (Adam Mickiewicz University Press), 36, pp. 307- 325, doi: 10.14746/se.2015.36.18

Warraich, Z. & Kleim, J. A. (2010) Neural Plasticity. The biological substrate for neurorehabilitation. PM & R; 2(12), pp. 208-219, doi: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2010.10.016.

Żukowski, L. J. (2017) Psycholog jako zawód zaufania publicznego – wybrane problem Teza nr. 2, Przegląd Prawa Publicznego, 3, pp. 39-49.


  • There are currently no refbacks.